Terminology

Risk Management Platform

Risk assessment may be the most important step in the risk management process, and may also be the most difficult and prone to error. Once risks have been identified and assessed, the steps to properly deal with them are much more predictable.Risk is a combination of the likelihood and consequence of possible fraudulent activity being realized. It is the measurement of harm or loss associated with such an activity.Risk assessments involve identifying the suspect information, determining the risk and applying measures to control it.

Real Time

Function: noun : the actual time during which something takes place,the computer may partly analyze the data in real time (as it comes in).

What is real-time?
Real-time is the ability to issue a command or instruction and get a response in a relatively predictable amount of time to that task. It is also defined as the actual time during which a process takes place or an event occurs.

For specific definitions of soft real-time and hard real-time, it is important to define two terms – preemptive and deterministic:

Preemptive scheduling lets a high priority job preempt a running job of lower priority, by suspending the low priority job to make resources available. Use preemptive scheduling if you have long-running low priority jobs that might cause high priority jobs to wait an unacceptably long time.

Deterministic refers to the ability to predict when a specific event will occur at its precise moment.

What is soft real-time?
Soft real-time is a response to an instruction that is not necessarily exact or precise, but an average response time to a task. Soft real-time is neither preemptive nor deterministic, but is a good solution for many real-time needs. Credit card readers or point-of-sale devices are good examples of soft real-time responses, because it is not critical whether a response to these devices is a half second early or a half second late. In a soft real-time system, we take a “best effort” approach and minimize latency from event to response as much as possible while keeping thoughput up with external events, overall.

Standard Linux provides very good soft real-time performance, especially when combined with Ingo Molnar’s low latency patch.

What is hard real-time?
Hard real-time requires a guaranteed, preemptive, deterministic response to an instruction. It is not based on average response times (like soft real-time), because it is used when exactness is paramount down to the microsecond. Examples of when hard real-time is used are in industrial controls, the military, medical equipment, etc. In a hard real time system, the deadlines are fixed and the system must guarantee response within a fixed and well defined time.

Both RTLinux and RTAI operate below the Linux kernel, providing the ability to preempt Linux, and thus providing hard real-time response.

Additional Comment
In summary, a hard real-time OS is one that provides a guarantee that the response to an event will occur within some fixed time, without fail, no matter what. A soft real-time OS will do it’s best to service your event within, on average, a certain time. Both types of operating systems are useful, but they have distictly different uses.

Occurring immediately. The term is used to describe a number of different computer features. For example, real-time operating systems are systems that respond to input immediately. They are used for such tasks as navigation, in which the computer must react to a steady flow of new information without interruption. Most general-purpose operating systems are not real-time because they can take a few seconds, or even minutes, to react.

Real time can also refer to events simulated by a computer at the same speed that they would occur in real life. In graphics animation, for example, a real-time program would display objects moving across the screen at the same speed that they would actually move.

Cache

A cache (pronounced CASH) is a place to store something temporarily. The files you automatically request by looking at a Web page are stored on your hard disk in a cache sub-directory under the directory for your browser (for example, Internet Explorer). When you return to a page you’ve recently looked at, the browser can get it from the cache rather than the original server, saving you time and the network the burden of some additional traffic. You can usually vary the size of your cache, depending on your particular browser.

Computers include caches at several levels of operation, including cache memory and a disk cache. Caching can also be implemented for Internet content by distributing it to multiple servers that are periodically refreshed. (The use of the term in this context is closely related to the general concept of a distributed information base.)

Cache Server

A cache server (sometimes called a cache engine) is a server relatively close to Internet users and typically within a business enterprise that saves (caches) Web pages and possibly FTP and other files that all server users have requested so that successive requests for these pages or files can be satisfied by the cache server rather than requiring the user of the Internet. A cache server not only serves its users by getting information more quickly but also reduces Internet traffic.A cache server is almost always also a proxy server, which is a server that “represents” users by intercepting their Internet requests and managing them for users. Typically, this is because enterprise resources are being protected by a firewall server that allows outgoing requests to go out but needs to screen all incoming traffic. A proxy server helps match incoming messages with outgoing requests and is in a position to also cache the files that are received for later recall by any user. To the user, the proxy and cache servers are invisible; all Internet requests and returned responses appear to be coming from the addressed place on the Internet. (The proxy is not quite invisible; its IP address has to be specified as a configuration option to the browser or other protocol program.)

Data

1) In computing, data is information that has been translated into a form that is more convenient to move or process. Relative to today’s computers and transmission media, data is information converted into binary digital form.

2) In computer component interconnection and network communication, data is often distinguished from “control information”, “control bits”, and similar terms to identify the main content of a transmission unit.

3) In telecommunications, data sometimes means digital-encoded information to distinguish it from analog-encoded information such as conventional telephone voice calls. In general, “analog” or voice transmission requires a dedicated continual connection for the duration of a related series of transmissions. Data transmission can often be sent with intermittent connections in packets that arrive in piecemeal fashion.

4) Generally and in science, data is a gathered body of facts.
Some authorities and publishers, cognizant of the word’s Latin origin and as the plural form of “datum”, use plural verb forms with “data”. Others take the view that since “datum” is rarely used, it is more natural to treat “data” as a singular form.

Data Scrubbing

Data scrubbing, also called data cleansing, is the process of amending or removing data in a database that is incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or duplicated. An organization in a data-intensive field like banking, insurance, retailing, telecommunications, or transportation might use a data scrubbing tool to systematically examine data for flaws by using rules, algorithms, and look-up tables. Typically, a database scrubbing tool includes programs that are capable of correcting a number of specific type of mistakes, such as adding missing zip codes or finding duplicate records. Using a data scrubbing tool can save a database administrator a significant amount of time and can be less costly than fixing errors manually.

Storage

In a computer, storage is the place where data is held in an electromagnetic or optical form for access by a computer processor. There are two general usages.

1) Storage is frequently used to mean the devices and data connected to the computer through input/output operations – that is, hard disk and tape systems and other forms of storage that don’t include computer memory and other in-computer storage. For the enterprise, the options for this kind of storage are of much greater variety and expense than that related to memory. This meaning is probably more common in the IT industry than meaning 2.

2) In a more formal usage, storage has been divided into: (1) primary storage, which holds data in memory (sometimes called random access memory or RAM) and other “built-in” devices such as the processor’s L1 cache, and (2) secondary storage, which holds data on hard disks, tapes, and other devices requiring input/output operations.

Primary storage is much faster to access than secondary storage because of the proximity of the storage to the processor or because of the nature of the storage devices. On the other hand, secondary storage can hold much more data than primary storage.

In addition to RAM, primary storage includes read-only memory (ROM) and L1 and L2 cache memory. In addition to hard disks, secondary storage includes a range of device types and technologies, including diskettes, Zip drives, redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, and holographic storage. Devices that hold storage are collectively known as storage media.

A somewhat antiquated term for primary storage is main storage and a somewhat antiquated term for secondary storage is auxiliary storage. Note that, to add to the confusion, there is an additional meaning for primary storage that distinguishes actively used storage from backup storage.

S.A.A.S.

“Software As A Service” is a way of delivering applications over the Internet—as a service. Instead of installing and maintaining software, you simply access it via the Internet, freeing yourself from complex software and hardware management.

API

Short for Application Program Interface, API is a set of routines, protocols and tools for building software applications. APIs make it easier for computer programmers by allowing them to implement pre-programmed software into their own programs.

Live Capture

Live capture is the act or method of gathering biometric data from an individual while the individual is physically present. The term is used in conjunction with security systems that identify people based on a previous recording of one or more of their body characteristics.

Live capture is used in some automatic teller machines (ATMs) to ensure that the person making the transaction is the individual to whom the magnetic ATM card belongs. One approach is iris scanning. The subject must look in the general direction of a camera and the eyes must be uncovered. Otherwise, the transaction is not completed. Another approach to live capture is facial recognition, which has been suggested as a way to scan crowds for suspected terrorists.

An advantage of live capture is that relevant action can be taken at the moment the data is gathered. For example, the police can be summoned if an intruder on a property is identified as a known criminal suspect by facial recognition equipment. In contrast, so-called dead or passive capture is used primarily to gather evidence or make comparisons of samples when the subject is not physically present.